Lazio is sometimes known as Latium. It takes this name from the population going back 750,00 years where archaeological finds suggest that Neanderthals lived in the caves of Circeo. Villages were formed over time and population centers developed in areas of easy access to the Tyrrhenian Sea. The first know settlements were small hut villages located on low hills overlooking the plains. The pre-Roman Italic peoples were called Latins, giving the area its name Latium.
Legend of the origins of Roma has it that a group of refugees from the city of Troy, which was destroyed by the Greeks around the 10th century BC, reached the coast of Lazio. Aeneas, the leader, married the daughter of the local king.
The hill towns of southern Lazio have retained their medieval character. Many towns continue their agricultural traditions, while others have capitalized on the mineral springs located nearby. Fiuggi is famous for its waters, which Pope Boniface VIII claimed cured his kidney stones. The baths of Pompey, located near Ferentino, are credited with curing rheumatism and breathing problems.
Southern Lazio's mountain region assures a healthy climate and attracts many tourists from nearby Roma. Its medieval buildings, fortresses, and walled towns attract both scholars and tourists. The seaside of southern Lazio is also a popular destination for tourists who flock to the seaside resorts of Terracina and Gaeta.